Posts Tagged ‘イヴァン・イリイチ’

Deschooling Society, by Ivan Illich

Many students, especially those who are poor, intuitively know what the schools do for them. They school them to confuse process and substance. Once these become blurred, a new logic is assumed: the more treatment there is, the better are the results; or, escalation leads to success. The pupil is thereby “schooled” to confuse teaching with learning, grade advancement with education, a diploma with competence, and fluency with the ability to say something new. His imagination is “schooled” to accept service in place of value. Medical treatment is mistaken for health care, social work for the improvement of community life, police protection for safety, military poise for national security, the rat race for productive work. Health, learning, dignity, independence, and creative endeavor are defined as little more than the performance of the institutions which claim to serve these ends.

『脱学校の社会』. イヴァン・イリイチ (著), 小澤 周三 (翻訳)



In these essays, I will show that the institutionalization of values leads inevitably to physical pollution, social polarization, and psychological impotence: three dimensions in a process of global degradation and modernized misery



Schools are designed on the assumption that there is a secret to everything in life; that the quality of life depends on knowing that secret; that secrets can be known only in orderly successions; and that only teachers can properly reveal these secrets. An individual with a schooled mind conceives of the world as a pyramid of classified packages accessible only to those who carry the proper tags.



A second major illusion on which the school system rests is that most learning is the result of teaching. Teaching, it is true, may contribute to certain kinds of learning under certain circumstances. But most people acquire most of their knowledge outside school, and in school only insofar as school, in a few rich countries, has become their place of confinement during an increasing part of their lives. Most learning happens casually, and even most intentional learning is not the result of programmed instruction. Normal children learn their first language casually, although faster if their parents pay attention to them.



Things, models, peers, and elders are four resources each of which requires a different type of arrangement to ensure that everybody has ample access to it.

I will use the words “opportunity web” for “network” to designate specific ways to provide access to each of four sets of resources. “Network” is often used, unfortunately, to designate the channels reserved to material selected by others for indoctrination, instruction, and entertainment. But it can also be used for the telephone or the postal service, which are primarily accessible to individuals who want to send messages to one another. I wish we had another word to designate such reticular structures for mutual access, a word less evocative of entrapment, less degraded by current usage and more suggestive of the fact that any such arrangement includes legal, organizational, and technical aspects. Not having found such a term, I will try to redeem the one which is available, using it as a synonym of “educational web.”

What are needed are new networks, readily available to the public and designed to spread equal opportunity for learning and teaching.



脱学校論: … イリッチは、学校を「特定の年齢層を対象として、履修を義務づけられたカリキュラムへのフルタイムの出席を要求する、教師に関連のある過程」と定義し、学校制度が、制度が価値を産み出す、価値は測定されうる、価値は詰め込まれる、人間は無限に進歩するといった神話を制度化し、神話と現実の相違を隠蔽しながら再生産するものであるとした。そして、学校制度によって人間は制度に依存し、孤立化し、疎外され、自主独立的に成長することを不可能にされているとし、学校制度を解体して、公衆が容易に自主的にそして平等に利用できる学習のための新しいネットワークを形成することを提案した。 ….


脱学校社会: 学校の機能不全、教育の危機を前にして1960年代以後、多くの教育改革論が主張されたが、その代表が生涯教育論と脱学校論とである。イリッチのつくったこの語は、現代の学校への最も徹底的な批判として多くの共鳴を得た。脱学校論者によれば、学校イコール教育、学校は永遠不滅だとする観念は根本的に誤っており、学校は多くの失敗と過失を生み出してきた。学校は権威に服従する大衆、反復作業や規則に従順な労働者をつくり、パスポートとしての学歴を発給し、青少年にレジャーを与え、不平等を拡大再生産する機関であり、強制収容所、工場、レクリエーション施設化している。このような学校を否定し、解体して、自発的な学習意思にもとづいた積極的な学習のネットワークによって構成されるのが、脱学校社会である。学校教育を否定しない生涯教育論では、これを学習社会という。脱学校論は、学校だけでなく社会全体の徹底的改革を主張する。



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